Samedi 11 novembre 2017, de 9:00 à 18:00
Salle de conférence : Xiongzhixing building, departement de sociologie, salle 109
09:20 – 10:00: Keynote speaker : Zhang Ning 张宁, Professor at the Chinese Studies Department, University of Geneva ; Visiting scholar at Tsinghua University:
“Critical thinking of the human and social sciences: the French case”
The domination of scientism and technological utilitarianism have become the most remarkable features of our time. The deep anxiety that drives debates about humanities and social sciences usefulness haunts investment policy in higher education and research all around the world. The first victims of budget cuts are the social sciences deemed unnecessary, then the social science projects that do not respond to urgent requests and finally basic research which usefulness is not immediately attested. The controversy over the scientific nature of human and social sciences has never stopped. Since the beginning of the 19th century, social sciences have been trying to appear as pure science while seeking to differentiate themselves from traditional human sciences. What makes it possible to overcome this tension and bring together these three human knowledge is the scientific spirit endowed with critical courage and skeptical capacity. The French contribution in the field of human and social sciences is both a manifestation and a development of this spirit. This presentation will illustrate the need to keep this critical spirit in a world increasingly « globalized », « digitized », « post-nationalized », where even intelligence become « artificial ».
10:00 – 10:30 : Eric Florence, Director of the French Center for Research on Contemporary China (Hong Kong, French National Center for Scientific Research)
“Naming/categorizing (im)migrants : France and China compared”
In this paper, I will engage AbdelmayekSayad’s argument that to research immigration corresponds to “interrogate the state, to question its very founding principles, its internal mechanism of structuration and of functioning (…)”. Sayad added that such an effort should enable to denaturalize categories of public policies and to “re-historicize the state”, i.e. to endeavor to shed light onto its social and historical genesis (Sayad 1996: 14). In which respect does Sayad’s arguments enable to problematize the role of internal migration in post-Mao China’s major social transformations? How have categorizations of rural migrant workers changed over time and how do these changes relate to public policies focusing on migrant workers, to how these workers stand in the social hierarchy, and to major socioeconomic reforms? In a first introductory section, I shall briefly comment on studies of bureaucratic and narrative categorization of immigrants in the history of immigration in France to highlight the role that such practices played in the formation of the modern state and of the shaping of a “national community”. In a second section of the paper, I will delve upon the transformation of categorization of rural migrants in China from the late 1980s – delving upon the dialectics of being represented and self-representation- and I will discuss which in respect French and Chinese historical experiences speak to each other. The material used for this contribution is made of both second-hand scientific literature, as well as first-hand sources and ethnographic data.
10:30 – 11:10: Wang Jianhua汪建华, Assistant Researcher, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
“The Rise and Dispelling of Collective Labor Disputes in the Pearl River Delta under the Background of Industrial Transformation and Upgrading”
Last years, as the coastal industrial areas knew restructuring and modernization, many enterprises in the Pearl River Delta region faced downturns and shutting down, which led to collective labor disputes. Unlike the 2010 strikes in Foshan’s Honda auto plants, workers are mainly engaged in collective labor dispute for practical purposes, with relevant legal provisions and corporate history debts as important bargaining chip. If workers’ actions are easily initiated, they are also easy to counter. Indeed, facing frequent labor disputes, local governments have gradually worked out a set of efficient ways to dispell them.
11:20 – 12:00: Liu Yan 刘焱, PhD Candidate, Tsinghua University
“Organizations’ Transition and Path Differences: A Comparative Analysis between Unions and Labor NGOs in South China”
Based on the comparative analysis between a local union and a labor NGO, this paper explores the unique background and path differences of labor organizations’ transition in South China. According to the research, China’s labor organizations are faced with structural changes in the new era, which bring legitimacy challenges with different emphasis to local unions and NGOs and then promote the two organizations’ transition. During the transition, they both participate in labor disputes and organize collective bargaining, but show different working paths in practice. The local union, situated in the governmental system, tries to get closed to workers in order to strengthen its legitimacy and authority. The strong administrative power provides the union with advantages as well as limitations. The NGOs, originating from the civil society, seek to balance the relationship between right-defense and stability-maintainance in order to explore bigger living space. The strong associational power makes the flexible strategies possible, as well as bringing huge political risks and uncertainty.
14:00 – 14:30: SwaniePotot, Senior Researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and University of Nice Sophia Antipolis
“Migrant’s participation in civil mobilization at the French-Italian border”
The situation of Europe regarding international migration has changed considerably in recent decades. First, it will be necessary to review this evolution which is linked to the construction of the European Union and the implementation of restrictive migration policies, to explain what appears today as a « migratory crisis ». These framing data will help presenting the situation at the Franco-Italian border where, since the summer of 2015 and beside free circulation agreements, significant police forces have attempted to put an end to the entry of African and Asian migrants into French territory.
Faced with the plight of these migrant populations, many civil organizations (NGOs) have developed a network of support for migrants. They bring moral and material help to hundreds of people each month. Their activities are sometimes carried out with the consent of the authorities, and sometimes against police will. After presenting the diversity of these organizations (religious, humanitarian, political…), the question will be raised of the participation of migrants themselves in the activities of these activists. Indeed, it often seems that action defending the right to migrate contradicts the individualistic and pragmatist dimension of their migratory project. How then do they manage to articulate these individual and collective perspectives? What are the differentiated motivations behind their participation or withdrawal? How do the French and Italian volunteers manage this non-joining of the defended public? These are the kind of questions we will address during this communication.
14:40 – 15:10 : Dominique Vidal, Professor of sociology, University Paris Diderot (Paris 7)
“The experience of Mozambican migrants in post-apartheid Johannesburg (South Africa)”
Apartheid sought to ensure the supremacy of the white minority and was, in particular, a political project against the urbanization of the rural Africans and foreign African migrant workers. With the election of Nelson Mandela as President of the Republic in 1994, South African cities have seen an influx of migrants from the South African rural areas and other African countries. From a fieldwork in Johannesburg and quantitative data, the purpose of this paper will be to examine the forms of urban integration of Mozambican migrants in the Johannesburg metropolis. Particular attention will be paid to their search for invisibility, the importance of individual strategies and the lack of collective action, which makes them very different from other migrant groups in Johannesburg. It will also be shown how xenophobia makes Mozambican migrants think of themselves as an ethnic group to cope with the hostility they face from black South Africans in everyday interactions.
15:10 – 15:40 : Sheng Mingjie盛明洁, Lecturer of Urban Planning, Tianjin University’s School of Architecture
“Socio-spatial characteristics of low-income graduates: A case study of Shigezhuang, Beijing”
During China’s rapid urbanization process, popularizing tertiary education in rural areas has been seen as one of the most effective ways to accelerate urbanization. The Chinese government initiated a college expansion plan in 2000 which has increased the amount of college graduates by 170% from 2000 to 2010. In recent years, the side effect of higher education expansion began to emerge. Usually coming from rural areas, failing to obtain urban household registrations (Hukou), receiving low wages, and having limited access to the urban public amenities, the low-income college graduates are among the most vulnerable groups in urban China and have attracted much public attention. Many of them concentrate on the metropolitan fringe and thus forming a kind of new social space: low-income graduates’ enclave. However, little academic attention has been paid to them. Based on data collected from the 1% questionnaire survey conducted in one of the largest low-income graduates’ enclaves (namely Shigezhuang) in Beijing in 2012, this paper describes the socio-spatial characteristics low-income graduates’ enclaves on metropolitan fringe, examines their job-housing spatial relationships, as well as analyzes their residential mobility decision-making process.
16:00 – 16:30 : Chloe Froissart (French Director of the Tsinghua University Sino-French Research Center) and Cinzia Losavio (Phd Candidate, University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
“Social policies for economic development : creating greater but differentiated inclusion : Hukou reformes and housing policy in Zhuhai”
According to previous studies on internal migrants’ urban integration, if migrant workers did not have urban hukou status, then they lacked urban membership. This “all or nothing” logic is not appropriate anymore. In the last decade, forced to promote the social inclusion of a soaring number of migrants in cities, municipal governments have issued a number of measures to ease the delivery of urban hukou, award subsidies for social housing, and facilitate the access to education and social security. However, the social inclusion of the “wailairenkou” (outsiders) into the urban space is far for being an even and homogeneous process. Our study aims at providing an analysis of the internal migrants’ integration system in Zhuhai, a typical third-tier city located in the Pearl River Delta, by comparing it with the models of urban integration in megalopolises, medium and small-sized cities. Since urban housing is a key element defining migrants’ urban integration process, we take the housing supply as long as the hukou reforms as a privileged entry point to evaluate the extent to which migrant workers (nongmingong) are entitled to access social benefits in the context of the new urbanization strategy. Led according to developmentalist perspectives and envisaged as a reward for the best-educated and most highly qualified “wailairenkou” in the cities, the reforms of the hukou system and housing policies create a differentiated urban membership, which leads us to reconsider the notion of “social policy” in the Chinese context.
16:30 – 17:00 : Jin Jun 晋军，Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Tsinghua University
“Life Cycle and House Consumption: Housing Provident Fund coverage of Chinese migrant workers”
While the Housing Provident Fund (HPF) plays an increasingly important role in housing finance in China due to the soaring real estate price, the majority of migrant workers still has no access to it and cannot apply the low rate loans for purchasing residential properties in urban area. Expanding HPF coverage to more migrant workers therefore could become a crucial measure to facilitate their transformation from floating population to permanent urban residents. Based on a survey on the HPF participation of migrant workers in Beijing, Zhongshan, and Jiaozuo, three Chinese cities with different population sizes and urbanization policies, this paper examines how life cycle, along with other factors such as occupation and income, shapes migrant workers’ house consumption decision as well as their willingness in participating in HPF.